How To: Make Your Own Gears

3D Printing & Imaging Robotics
How To: Make Your Own Gears



In 2010, we asked Dustyn Roberts, then teaching a course at NYU’s Interactive Telecommunications Program (ITP) called Mechanisms and Things That Move, to contribute something on fabricating your own gears for our Physical Science and Mechanics theme. Dustyn had just written a book, called Making Things Move, and we wanted to feature some of the kinds of content that could be found in it. — Gareth

Gears are easy to understand, make, and use, if you know the vocabulary and can space the gears at the correct distance apart. One nice thing about gears is that if you know any two things about them – let’s say outer diameter and number of teeth — you can use some simple equations to find everything else you need to know, including the correct center distance between them. First, look over the anatomy of the spur gear pair in figure 1 and the vocab below.

  • Number of Teeth (N)
  • Pitch Diameter (D): The circle on which two gears effectively mesh, about halfway through the tooth. The pitch diameters of two gears will be tangent when the centers are spaced correctly.
  • Diametral Pitch (P): The number of teeth per inch of the circumference of the pitch diameter. Think of it as the density of teeth — the higher the number, the smaller and more closely spaced the teeth on a gear. Common diametral pitches for hobby-size projects are 24, 32, and 48. The diametral pitch of all meshing gears must be the same.
  • Circular Pitch (p) = pi / P: The length of the arc between the center of one tooth and the center of a tooth next to it. This is just pi (Ï€ = 3.14) divided by the diametral pitch (P). Although rarely used to identify off the shelf gears, you may need this parameter when modeling gears in 2D and 3D software like we’re doing here. As with diametral pitch, the circular pitch of all meshing gears must be the same.
  • Outside Diameter (Do): The biggest circle that touches the edges of the gear teeth. You can measure this using a caliper like’s # TOL-00067.
    Note: Gears with an even number of teeth are easiest to measure, since each tooth has another tooth directly across the gear. On a gear with an odd number of teeth, if you draw a line from the center of one tooth straight through the center across the gear, the line will fall between two teeth. So, just be careful using outside diameter in your calculations if you estimated it from a gear with an odd number of teeth.
  • Center Distance (C): Half the pitch diameter of the first gear plus half the pitch diameter of the second gear will equal the correct center distance. This spacing is critical for creating smooth running gears.
  • Pressure Angle: The angle between the line of action (how the contact point between gear teeth travels as they rotate) and the line tangent to the pitch circle. Standard pressure angles are, for some reason, 14.5° and 20°. A pressure angle of 20° is better for small gears, but it doesn’t make much difference. It’s not important to understand this parameter, just to know that the pressure angle of all meshing gears must be the same.
Figure 1

All of these gear parameters relate to each other with simple equations. The equations in the table below come from the excellent (and free) design guide published by Boston Gear [PDF].


Making your own

This project is adapted from a blog post a student did in my first Mechanisms and Things That Move class at NYU’s ITP. We’ll design and fabricate spur gears using free software (Inkscape) and an online store ( that does custom laser cutting at affordable prices out of a variety of materials. If you have access to a laser cutter at a local school or hackerspace, even better! You can also print out the template and fix it to cardboard or wood to cut the gears by hand.

    1. Download and install Inkscape from Inkscape. It’s a free, open-source vector based drawing program similar to Adobe Illustrator. It plays well with most modern Windows, Mac, and Linux operating systems (check FAQ for details).
    2. Go to Ponoko and download their Inkscape starter kit. This will give you a making guide (a PDF file) and three templates that relate to the sizes of materials Ponoko stocks. Unzip the file and save to somewhere you’ll remember.
    3. Open a new file in Inkscape. Under the file menu, go to Document Properties to get the window shown in Figure 2. Change the default units in the upper right hand corner to inches. Back in the main window, change the rulers from pixels to inches in the toolbar. Your screen should look like Figure 2. Once set, exit that window.
Figure 2
  1. Now let’s make some gears! Go to the toolbar and choose Extensions –> Render –> Gear. A small Gear window will pop up that gives you three options: Number of Teeth, Circular pitch, px, and Pressure angle. Leave Pressure angle alone — the 20° default is standard for off the shelf gears so is a good place to start. In Figure 3, you can see that I chose 28 teeth with a circular pitch of 24. Click Apply, then Close.Note on circular pitch: In Inkscape, the circular pitch is given in pixels, not inches, as we’re used to using in the equations in the above table. You can get different gear ratios by just choosing a circular pitch that looks good and varying the teeth number, but if you want to make gears that interface with off the shelf gears, you need to pay a little bit more attention. By default in Inkscape there are 90 pixels in 1 inch. So if you set circular pitch to 24px in the gear tool as done above, that rounds to 0.267 inches (24/90 = 0.2666…). Since diametral pitch (P) = Ï€ / circular pitch (p), the diametral pitch (P) in inches is = Ï€ / 0.267 = 11.781. You will not find any off the shelf gears with a diametral pitch of 11.781. As mentioned earlier, common diametral pitches are 24, 32, and 48. So if you plan to make gears to play nice with off the shelf gears, start with the diametral pitch of your off the shelf gear and use the equations in the table to work backwards to what your circular pitch should be in pixels in Inkscape.
Figure 3
  1. Now, since gears are no fun by themselves, follow steps 4 and 5 again to make at least one more gear. The second gear shown in figure 30 has 14 teeth. Remember: The pressure angle and circular pitch must be the same for the gears to mesh – only change the number of teeth!
  2. Use the circle tool and hold down the CTRL button (on a PC) to draw a circle inside the big gear. The default circle shows up filled in with black. Zoom in if you need to. Make sure the arrow selector is active and click on the circle. Make sure inches is selected in the toolbar and the lock button looks locked. Type 0.250 in the W box in the toolbar, press enter, and watch the H box change automatically. Your circle will resize to 0.250 inches in diameter and your screen should look like Figure 4.
Figure 4
  1. Click and drag a box around the big gear, small gear, and circle shape to select them all. From the menu bar, choose Object –> Fill and Stroke. A window that looks like Figure 5 should pop up.
    • In the Fill tab, click the X button for no paint.
    • In the Stroke paint tab, click the button next to the X for flat color. Leave the color default (black) for now.
    • In the Stroke style tab, change the width to 0.030 mm and hit enter. This is what Ponoko wants the line thickness to be for laser cuts. Adjust if necessary if you’re using a different laser cutter. Close the window.
Figure 5
  1. Now we need to get this circle in the exact center of the gear. Make sure the arrow selector is active. Click and drag a box around the big gear and the circle to select them both. On the menu bar, go to Object –> Align and Distribute. Click on the “center object horizontally” button highlighted in figure 6, then the one right below it – “center objects vertically.” Now you have a gear with a hole perfectly centered! Copy and paste this circle and repeat this step to center a circle in the other gear.
Figure 6
    1. Now that we have our gears, let’s create a base with holes spaced the correct distance apart so we can mount the gears with 1/4″ wooden dowels and make them spin.
      1. First, we need to calculate what the center distance (CD) of our gears is using the equations from the table. Both of our gears have a circular pitch of 24 px, a pressure angle of 20°. The big gear has 28 teeth and the small one has 14. In the note on step 4, we converted the circular pitch in pixels to a diametral pitch in inches of 11.781. If we look at the table, all we need is that number and the numbers of teeth on the two meshing gears to find the center distance (CD). Use the equation CD = (N1 + N2)/2P and you’ll find that CD = 1.783.
      2. Now, copy one of the circles inside the gears, and paste two of them about two inches apart on the lower part of the template. Select the one farthest to the left, and change the X coordinate in the toolbar to 3 inches, then hit enter. Your screen should look like Figure 7.
      Figure 7
      1. Use the same procedure to place the second circle to the right of the first with an X coordinate of 4.783. This is the center distance we calculated above (1.783) added to the X coordinate of the first circle (3.000).
      2. Now draw a rectangle around the two circles to complete the base. Align the rectangle with the two circles as shown in Figure 8.
Figure 8
    1. Now we need to prepare the file to be uploaded and ordered on
        1. Ponoko uses colors to indicate how they should treat the files — for example, a blue 0.030 mm line means cut it all the way through. So select everything you’ve drawn so far, go to the color swatches at the bottom of the screen, and hold down the shift button while you click on blue.
        2. Open the P1.svg template you downloaded earlier. Select everything you have drawn so far, and copy and paste it into this template as shown in Figure 9. Don’t worry about the orange border and words — Ponoko knows only to cut the blue outlines.
      Figure 9
      1. Save the file and go to to set up a free account, upload it, pick a material, and get it shipped! I chose blonde bamboo as shown in Figure 10 and the total cost was just $4.13 (plus shipping).Note: Once you open your free account, go to My Accounts –> Preferences to set your shipping hub to Ponoko – United States (or the closest location to you). Mine was accidentally set to New Zealand so my shipping charges were curiously high until I figured this out.
Figure 10
    1. Your Ponoko order should arrive in a couple weeks, unless you specify a rush. While you’re waiting, get a 1/4″ wooden dowel from your local hardware or craft store (or McMaster, of course). Cut off two 2″ sections with a hobby knife and file down any splintery ends.
    2. The gears will come in the square template with a sticky paper protector on each side. Peel off the paper, pop out the gears, and position the two gears over the holes in the base. Insert your wooden dowels, and voila!
Figure 11

BIO: Dustyn Roberts is a traditionally-trained engineer with non-traditional ideas about how engineering can be taught. She started her career at Honeybee Robotics, as an engineer on the Sample Manipulation System project for NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory mission, scheduled for launch in 2011. After consulting with two artists during their residency at Eyebeam Art + Technology Center in NYC in 2006, she founded Dustyn Robots ( and continues to engage in consulting work ranging from gait analysis to designing guided parachute systems. In 2007, she developed a course for NYU’s Interactive Telecommunications Program (ITP) called Mechanisms and Things That Move that led to writing a book called Making Things Move: DIY Mechanisms for Inventors, Hobbyists, and Artists, due out in fall 2010. Dustyn holds a BS in Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering from Carnegie Mellon University, an MS in Biomechanics & Movement Science from the University of Delaware, and will begin a PhD program in Mechanical Engineering at NYU-Poly in August this year. Media coverage of her work has appeared in Time Out New York, IEEE Spectrum, and other local organizations. She lives in New York City with her partner, Lorena, and cat, Simba.


34 thoughts on “How To: Make Your Own Gears

  1. says:

    Thanks for the tutorial. I’m looking forward to seeing the SADbot for myself one of these days.

    Is it still on display at Eyebeam?

  2. dustynrobots says:

    Thanks! And yes, it should be up through July 24th. We had a small hiccup today when one of the motors died, but that will be fixed in a day or two.

  3. TotalMonkey says:

    I was just wondering today how I was going to make some gears for a project due this Saturday (of which I hadn’t started yet, of course)!

  4. Big Blue Saw says:

    Don’t forget, if you want thin metal spur gears, waterjet cutting is probably the way to go.

    For thicker gears, you’ll need to have low taper waterjet cutting or arrange the gears such that the taper runs in the opposite direction on each gear.

    Also, I don’t believe that Ponoko automatically compensates for the kerf of the laser, so your gears may run a little bit loose.

  5. bkubicek says:

    if you need gcode with cutter compensation, you can also look into this:

  6. Andy Seubert says:

    Math is hard so I use these:

    onine wooden gear template maker

    and this super awesomoe windows program which will export gears in DXF form (and others)

  7. pyrhho says:

    Keep in mind, that the little “centering” trick may not work if you have an odd number of gears. For example, 7 teeth, circular pitch of 24px, and pressure angle of 20. In this situation 2 of the teeth are touching the left edge, making the center hole be mis-aligned (too far right).

    1. dustynrobots says:

      Excellent point, I didn’t test that when I wrote this tutorial. However, I just did, and it seems that it centers a circle on a gear with an odd number of teeth just fine. That was just a quick test though – if you’ve found errors let me know! Thanks.

      1. Aaron Spike says:

        I am happy to hear that you found this gear generating script useful. If centering odd toothed gears proves to be a problem, it would be rather simple to have the script generate the center point. And there are plenty of other useful modifications that could be made, for example adding undercutting and addendum modification or outsetting the outlines slightly to account for the laser kerf. Check it out.

        Happy hacking!

        1. dustynrobots says:

          That’s great! Thanks Aaron for the link. Unfortunately my coding skillz are not quite ready for that challenge, but I would love to guide someone a little more experienced. It doesn’t look like centering with odd toothed gears is a problem, but having the option to generate a user-defined centered circle would probably be great. Also, the option to choose diametral pitch in inches or mm instead of circular pitch in pixels would be cool.

  8. Big Blue Saw says:

    Another useful source for gear (and other mechanical component) CAD files is industrial suppliers, like SDP/SI and McMaster-Carr. They have CAD files in DXF and other formats.

    Also, it occurs to me that if you’re not committed to the clockpunk look of the wooden gears and you don’t want the expense of metal gears, it’s probably best to stick to engineering plastics like acetal or PETG.

    1. dustynrobots says:

      I don’t think enough people know about that option, so I did a quick tutorial on downloading a part from McMaster into Alibre Design in chapter 9 of my book. Maybe that’s another good excerpt to post here!

  9. Tim Rossiter says:

    hey, thanks for this. How could I design a gear rack to use with these gears?

  10. Dan Rushton says:

    Thanks for the help. Our FIRST robotics team is gearing up for off-season work, and this looks like very useful items for teaching our next generation of roboticists in grade schools in the area.
    We are always looking for people who are interested in mentoring students about robotics and business, particularly in the northern Minnesota area for us, but generally anywhere there is a FIRST robotics team.

  11. Martin says:

    I think you are wrong about diametral pitch. It’s not the number of teeth/the circumference of the pitch diameter but number of teeth/pitch diameter itself. Otherwise the pie in the equation P= pie / p doesn’t make any sence

  12. The Studio (@TheStudio7) says:

    Can you post direct working links? These generic links that take you to a site that you have to waste time with searches (which seem to come up with 0) are very annoying. I would like to see a copy of the design guide for instance.

    1. Dan Rushton says:

      Which links, specifically, or is it all of them? And which design guide?
      I seem to have similar problems with links not going where I expect them to go when I use a computer that is configured improperly for security (such as the local high school, library and state job service). When I use a computer with much more independance over internet address access lists (specifically “allow all unless specifically denied” and not placing “gear” in the specifically denied list) I seem to be able to follow all links.

  13. says:

    Have you checked out the wood gear program at woodgears.CA ? He has a really good free version and some really neat wood projects like a wooden air powered motor.

  14. Kitten says:

    Hi great stuff but I’m looking for planet gear modeling as in some cycle hub gears (internal involute and other complex forms as well as – pin, lantern etc.) I’ve tried Sketchup but a gear design generating plugin fails whatever I do (or have tried). Any freebee advice?

  15. Zach Alterman says:

    i downloaded inkscape and am able to make circles and rectangles and all the normal functions – but when i click ‘apply’ when trying to make a gear I get the following message
    “the fantastic |xm| wrapper for libxml2 is required by and therefore this extension”…
    anyone else have this problem:?

  16. Jimmer says:

    The caliper information is dated – they carry a 6″ digital caliper as TOL-10997. Good luck!

  17. Dominique says:

    Mobility: Another large selection to create
    in choosing a power saw today, a minimum of with portable resources
    being a reciprocating saw of dvd sander is if to check out wire less or possibly stick with any kind of attached tool.
    Bundles could be sculptured with the chain saw to fit rather nicely round the door and home window
    apertures. Need to you be selecting a connected device I could select
    any sort of 6 14″ for cord-less, choose any sort of Half a dozen 12″.

  18. Jason Desrosiers says:

    What if you want to make a rack and pinion instead of two round gears?

    1. dwest says:

      simply make one of the “gears” on a straight line.

      1. steventaitinger says:

        That isn’t true. Rack gears are straight toothed. Machinery’s Handbook is your friend.

        1. dwest says:

          three years ago, and you’re commenting now to “inform” all of us on what is or isn’t true?
          here’s a friendly handbook for you: These gears aren’t metal, they’re wood, so ya I’ve done it, generated round gear profiles and “unwound” them into straight lines to make perfectly TRUE rack & pinion mechanisms. out of wood. I have no idea what your friendly machinery handbook says, but I’m fairly certain it’s all about metal wheels & gears. wood, in case you were unaware, is a lot more forgiving than metal.
          it was “kind” of you to comment, but it’s you who’s incorrect… GFY

          1. steventaitinger says:

            Lol! Are you saying the rack gear tooth profile is not supposed to have straight sides, that even though they are supposed to have straight sides that isn’t critical to a properly meshing rack and pinion, or simply that Machinery’s Handbook is actually not your friend? :P

          2. dwest says:

            am I saying that?
            sheesh. what is it with you kind of people?! news flash: there happens to be MULTIPLE ways to negotiate every obstacle. there isn’t just YOUR way or my way. listed carefully because this shall be the last time we talk so your response if you respond will go unread because I don’t intend to look at anything else you have to say since I do not require your opinion to approve my woodworking skills… Sandpaper is your friend when it comes to making wooden wheels, pinions & gears. the individual tooth profile is just a foundation and NO gear works perfectly until it has been tweaked and customized for whatever purpose it serves. thank you for proving to yourself that you’re the smartest person in the comments, and if it pleases you to “win” then whatever, you win, your wonderful handbook is now at the top of my fall reading list (but not really). bye.

          3. steventaitinger says:

            Hey it seems like you use a fair bit of wooden gears. I am considering wooden gears for an RC car I am designing. I think Acrylic will be a better choice but I haven’t found anyone online that has reported on the durability of wooden gears. Have you used them for any high speed or high torque designs? If so how long did they last?

          4. dwest says:

            nothing high speed, but high torque, yes. i build wooden clocks that are gravity driven, so the Great Wheel, which carries all that weight, needs to be thicker (~1/2″ or 14mm), as does the pinion it meshes with. after that the other wheels in the going train can be thin (~14″ or 6mm). but wood is temperamental when it comes to weather & environment. a poor choice for an RC car. acrylic is more stable but has high friction, use delrin or PTFE instead, either of these materials is superior to wood or acrylic.. and yes, against my better judgement I responded when I said I wouldn’t. plenty of better information out there, I am a limited source since I too am still learning.. oh, there are two types of delrin, extruded and cast. I recommend cast..

          5. steventaitinger says:

            Thanks for the reply. My top three choices in means of access right now are laser cut acrlic or wood, 3d printed ABS. I really love how fast I can laser cut things and how strong they are. I can’t laser cut 1/4in delrin with nice faces like I can with acrylic. I am looking for the best I can get basically for free not the best in an absolute sense. When I try acrylic I am going to try lubricating it with MoS2 which I think will make it a reasonably good solution. Wood on some of the lower speed/lower torque and clean areas inside the car would be nice because I can glue it together into larger sections more easily than acrylic to other materials. I think the sheet I bought is cast acrylic (I am hoping but will confirm).

            Do you have any of your clocks online?

  19. Matt says:

    I would like to use my CNC for making some wooden gears. Do I need to add an undercut to avoid interference? I suppose it would depend on the endmill diameter, are there any guidelines available?

  20. Joseph A Falvo says:

    Thank you for an awesome tutorial. Great explanation of each of the parameters. How do I apply these equations for a crown/face gear meshing with a spur pinion at 90deg?

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Gareth Branwyn is a freelance writer and the former Editorial Director of Maker Media. He is the author or editor of over a dozen books on technology, DIY, and geek culture. He is currently a contributor to Boing Boing, Wink Books, and Wink Fun. His free weekly-ish maker tips newsletter can be found at

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