Here’s another wonderful woodworking project from Len Cullum. Editing this really makes me want to build a pair of these, and I don’t even do woodworking! (BTW: See links to all of Len’s articles at the bottom of this piece.) –Gareth
In this installment of my series of Woodworking Skill Set articles, I will be building shop furniture that sees even more action than the sawhorses — these are called “low horses.” Since most Japanese woodwork is done while sitting, it stands to reason that the sawhorses would be short enough to accommodate. And while I don’t do too much work on the floor, I do use the low horses all of the time. They are incredibly useful in general but where they really shine is in keeping whatever I’m working on above the ever-increasing splay of tools that accumulate on my bench. In the years since I made my first pair, I’ve been recommending them to all of my woodworker friends as essential what-did-I-do-before-I-had-these tools. But it isn’t until I make a pair for them that they agree and often go on to make more for themselves.
Constructed using a two by four and a couple of hand tools they’re cheap and easy to build. I usually build them using hardwoods like oak or hickory, but anything will do. The pair pictured above are oak reclaimed from old church pews. For the ones I’m making here, I’ll be using a two by four. Okay, it is admittedly a fancy 2×4 (quarter-sawn hemlock) but a two by four nonetheless. Nothing but the best for the readers of the Make blog I say! As always, choose the clearest, straightest lumber you can find. As far as technique goes, this is mostly about connecting lines. Working both sides at an angle to create a peak in the center, and then gradually reducing the peak to a flat. This approach will give you much more control and cleaner, more accurate results. And that is what good joinery is all about.
What I’m using:
- Fancy 2″x4″x8′ (1x)
- Sharp chisel
- Adjustable Square
Start by breaking the two by four down into its parts, which in this case, are four 8″ long legs and two 22″ long beams. These measurements aren’t critical, they were determined by what I could get out of those original oak boards and I’ve been using them ever since. If you’re cutting them by hand, take a look at the method I outlined in the workhorses article.
Layout: The legs are joined to the beam using half-lap joints. They are simple to cut but to get them to fit well, the layout has to be right-on, so take your time and be precise. Beginning with one of the legs, find center by measuring in from each end. Then using another leg, find the center of its thickness. Place one leg on the other with center lines together and then mark to either side. Because of the rounded edge on most 2x4s, it’s easier to make the mark by adjusting the square to the length and marking from it. Transfer the line to the other three, both on the edge and about 1/2″ down either side. These are the shoulder lines.
On the beams, mark a line 2″ in from either end and 1/2″ down either side. Place a leg against the line and mark its thickness. Transfer that line as well. Lastly, set the square for 1/2″ and connect all of the pairs of lines.
Saw: Using a hand saw, cut on the inside of each shoulder line down to the 1/2″ line. If you are still developing your sawing skills, stay a little further inside the lines. You can always make the joint wider, but making it smaller is tough. On any joint like this with a flat area wider than 1″, I often make extra relief cuts in between. This makes chiseling out the waste easier and helps keep the bottom flat.
Chisel: Once all of the sawing is done, it’s time to chop out the waste. Using a sharp chisel and hammer, start removing wood from the joint. Work at an angle removing about 1/8″ at a time to create a slope to the other side. When you get near the line, flip the piece over and chop from the other side until you reach that line, then using lighter paring cuts, carefully shave away the rest until the then bottom is flat. Work from both sides and check the bottom for square when you are done.
Once all the bottoms have been flattened, it’s time to start the fitting. Letter or number each leg to a corresponding joint on the beams. This is important because each one will be trimmed to fit its own spot. Working one joint at a time, trim one side right to the line, but don’t trim the line away. This is called “saving the line.” Hold the end of the corresponding leg in place and check the layout line. If it doesn’t match up with the line you made redraw it. Trim to the line then repeat the process on the other half of the joint. When both halves of the cut are done, fit them together. The fit should be snug but shouldn’t require more than a couple of light taps with a hammer to seat it.
Make ‘em Pretty: As far as function goes, the horses are pretty much done. I could just glue them up and call it a day. But since the wood is so nice and they’ll be around my shop for years, I want to take them further. I have seen examples of these horses with legs ranging from simple 45º slopes to curly carved temple brackets. The ones I make fall somewhere in between. Again, there is nothing special about this design, other than it being typical of low horses. Use your imagination and design them how you like.
I begin by making a pattern on a piece of card stock and then transferring it to both sides of each leg. If you have a bandsaw, scroll saw, or coping saw handy, now would be a good time to use it. Since I wanted to build these with a minimum of tools, I am using a regular handsaw to get rid of the waste and then chiseling away the rest.
Staying back from the pattern lines, saw out a notch to remove the bulk between the curves. Then make a cut across the points.
Using a (say it with me) sharp chisel, trim along the edges at an angle to the pattern lines. When both sides are trimmed, pare away the wood in-between, leaving just a bit of the angled edge intact. Clamping the leg to a bench is highly recommended. Be patient and take light shavings. This will save both your chisel and your hands.
When all of the legs are prettified, it’s time to make a relief in the bottom of each leg to create feet. I measured in 2″ from each end and about 1/4″ deep. This layout could be traced from the pattern, but I didn’t think of it until it was too late. Always learning… Using the same method as the half-laps, saw to the lines and chisel away the rest.
The last step before assembly is to use a chisel (or knife or sandpaper) to remove all of the sharp corners. Just avoid the areas near the joints.
The Glue-Up: All that’s left is to apply some glue to all of the joint surfaces and put them together. It’s a good idea to place them on a flat surface with weight on them while they dry. If your joints are a little loose, you can use epoxy or some other gap filling glue. Foaming, polyurethane glues, like Gorilla glue, work well. For even more strength, a 3/8″ diameter 4″ deep dowel through the bottom of each foot will do the trick.
And there you have it! If you want to take them further still, sand them smooth and apply finish. Or, as I do with all of mine, using double stick tape, add a sacrificial strip of cedar to the top to protect them, and whatever I place on them, from damage. All that’s left now is to put them to use.
- Skill Set: Making A Butterfly Spline (Or “Arikata”)
- Skill Set: Getting Started with Woodworking Power Tools
- How-To: Build Japanese Sawhorses
- Skill Set: Woodworking project layout and layout tools
- Skill Set: Tuning Planes and Chisels
- Skill Set: Understanding Basic Woodworking Tools
- Our entire Woodworking Archive on MAKE